A functioning society depends on a citizenry that functions at a certain level of competence. Throughout the United States, we have mandatory education laws to ensure that children will attain a basic level of competence before they become adults.
Families depend on members who provide for the family’s needs. Throughout the United States, we have laws that require responsible family members to support their dependents.
This is the obligation level of ethics: the level of responsibility to provide for basic needs. Though our obligations in the world arise from our relationships to each other, this topic refers not to our relations with others per se but to our relationship to the world, including the work world.
Technical and Analytical Readings
We could say that our obligation in the world is to become competent, and live accordingly.
- Andrew J. Eliot, Carol S. Dweck and David S. Yaeger, Handbook of Competence and Motivation: Theory and Applications (The Guilford Press, Second Edition, 2017).
- Roberta R. Greene and Nancy R. Kropf, Competence: Select Theoretical Frameworks (Aldine Transaction, 2011).
- Lyle M. Spencer and Singe M. Spencer, Competence At Work: Models for Superior Performance (Wiley, 1993).
Music: Composers, artists, and major works
Franz Josef Haydn’s middle symphonies mark a transition from the baroque into the classical era. Scored for full orchestra, they represent a further emergence into an integrated world. Still, they bear the hallmarks of early compositions, in which the composer – albeit a master composer – was only beginning to explore the new genre.
- Symphony No. 38 in C Major, Hob.I:38, "Echo" (1768)
- Symphony No. 39 in G Minor, Hob.I:39, "Tempestra di Mare" (1768)
- Symphony No. 40 in F Major, Hob.I:40 (1763)
- Symphony No. 41 in C Major, Hob.I:41 (1769)
- Symphony No. 42 in D Major, Hob.I:42 (1771)
- Symphony No. 43 in E-flat Major, Hob.I:43, "Merkur" (Mercury) (1771)
- Symphony No. 44 in E Minor, Hob.I:44, "Trauer" (Morning) (1771)
- Symphony No. 46 in B Major, Hob.I:46 (1772)
- Symphony No. 47 in G Major, Hob.I:47, "Palindrome" (1772)
- Symphony No. 48 in C Major, Hob.I:48, "Mother Theresia" (1769)
- Symphony No. 49 in F Minor, Hob.I:49, "La Passione" (The Passion) (1768)
- Symphony No. 50 in C Major, Hob.I:50 (1773)
- Symphony No. 51 in B-flat Major, Hob.I:51 (1773)
- Symphony No. 52 in C Minor, Hob.I:52 (1773)
- Symphony No. 53 in D Major, Hob.I:53, "L'Imperiale" (The Imperial) (1779)
- Symphony No. 54 in G Major, Hob.I:54 (1774)
- Symphony No. 56 in C Major, Hob.I:56 (1774)
- Symphony No. 57 in D Major, Hob.I:57 (1774)
- Symphony No. 58 in F Major, Hob.I:58 (1768)
- Symphony No. 59 in A Major, Hob.I:59, "Feuersymphonie" (Fire) (1768)
- Symphony No. 60 in C Major, Hob.I:60, "Il Distratto" (Distraction) (1774)
- Symphony No. 61 in D Major, Hob.I:61 (1776)
- Symphony No. 62 in D Major, Hob.I:62 (1780)
- Symphony No. 63 in C Major, Hob.I:63, "La Roxelane" (1777)
- Symphony No. 65 in A Major, Hob.I:65 (1773)
- Symphony No. 66 in B-flat Major, Hob.I:66 (1779)
- Symphony No. 67 in F Major, Hob.I:67 (1779)
- Symphony No. 68 in B-flat Major, Hob.I:68 (1779)
- Symphony No. 69 in C Major, Hob.I:69, "Laudon" (1779)
- Symphony No. 70 in D Major, Hob.I:70 (1779)
- Yun, String Quartet No. 3 (1961): 1. Moderato; 2. Adagio; 3. Allegro, etc.
- Hayden Wayne, String Quartet No. 10
- Gibbons, Consort and Keyboard Music: Songs and Anthems
- Brillon de Jouy, Piano Sonatas
- Dubugnon, Chamber Symphony No. 1, Op 63
- Bland, Piano Sonata No. 17 in A Minor
Sun rises and sets everyday; / Moon rises and sets everyday; / Plough man ploughs the field; / Poets love to compose poems!
Some love to do duty well; / But many do only for profit. / How duty has to be done? / What do duty, work mean?
Duty is done expecting none; / Work is done expecting some. / Duty and work all have to do; / But duty, works are different!
Duty is life work for everyone; / Work is done to live life here!
[Ramesh T.A., “Duty and Work”]