He was a boisterous, pallid, nimble, wide-awake, jeering, lad, with a vivacious but sickly air. He went and came, sang, played at hopscotch, scraped the gutters, stole a little, but, like cats and sparrows, gayly laughed when he was called a rogue, and got angry when called a thief. He had no shelter, no bread, no fire, no love; but he was merry because he was free. [Victor Hugo, Les Misérables (1862), Volume III – Marius; Book First – Paris Studied In Its Atom, Chapter XIII, Little Gavroche.]
Giving a person space to move is an important element in the development of independence. Only when someone is free to act and to choose can a he acquire the skills necessary to independence.
Music: songs and other short pieces
- Johann Sebastian Bach, Solo Cello Suite No. 4 in E-flat Major, bwv 1010: (6) Gigue
Music: Composers, artists, and major works
Approximately three decades before modern free jazz emerged, woodwind specialist Sidney Bechet, along with trumpeter Louis Armstrong, developed the art form known as jazz. With its American roots, and its emergence from the blues, American jazz is characterized by the wide latitude the performers have not only to interpret the music but to rewrite it as they perform it. Nevertheless, early jazz exponents, such as Bechet, adhered closely to melodic lines, which their progeny in the free jazz idiom did not always do. Therefore, the work of these early jazz masters illustrates the value of latitude.
- Sidney Bechet collection
- King Oliver collection
- Fletcher Henderson collection
- Jelly Roll Morton collection
A little later, jazz guitarist Django Reinhardt, along with his violinist Stephane Grappelli, took jazz into a new era. His free and easy Gypsy style expanded jazz’s range.
Virtually everything in jazz illustrates the idea of latitude. Here are just a few artists and albums from later eras:
John Corigliano’s piano music:
- Winging It: Improvisations for piano
- Chioroscuro for two pianos tuned a quarter-tone apart
- Fantasia on an Ostinato
- Kaleidoscope for two pianos
- Etude Fantasy
- Landowski, Symphony No. 3, “des Espaces” (1965). The composer explains: “This symphony . . . by its deliberately broad and developed thematic structure, seeks, apart from any literary idea, to find a musical pulsation that allows an evocation of the wide open spaces on Earth, and even those inner ones sometimes imagined in our dreams.”
- Weinberg, Clarinet Sonata, Op. 28 (1945)
- Arnold, Viola Concerto, Op. 108: 1. Allegro con spirito; 2. Andante con moto; 3. Allegro vivace.
- Raga Misra Tilang (Mishra Tilang) (performances by Sharma and Hussain, Narayan and Prasad, and Sultan Khan)