- . . . in the eye of the law, there is in this country no superior, dominant, ruling class of citizens. There is no caste here. Our Constitution is color-blind, and neither knows nor tolerates classes among citizens. In respect of civil rights, all citizens are equal before the law. The humblest is the peer of the most powerful. [John Harlan, dissenting in Plessey v. Ferguson.]
- . . . in a just society the liberties of equal citizenship are taken as settled; the rights secured by justice are not subject to political bargaining or to the calculus of social interests. [John Rawls, A Theory of Justice (1971), Chapter 1, “Justice as Fairness,” (1) “The Role of Justice”.]
- Freedom for the wolves has often meant death to the sheep. [Attributed to Isaiah Berlin.]
In 1868, the United States added the Fourteenth Amendment to its Constitution, guaranteeing every person within its jurisdiction equal protection of the laws. Despite a checkered history of enforcement, this principle remains an essential and cherished ideal.
- Robert P. Green, Jr., Equal Protection and the African American Constitutional Experience: A Documentary History (Greenwood, 2000).
- Angelo N. Ancheta, Scientific Evidence and Equal Protection of the Law (Rutgers University Press, 2006).
- Arthur S. Leonard, ed., Homosexuality and the Constitution (Routledge, 1997).
- Eric Marcus, Making Gay History: The Half-Century Fight for Lesbian and Gay Equal Rights (Harper Paperbacks, 2002).
- Steven M. Buechler, Women's Movements in the United States: Woman Suffrage, Equal Rights, and Beyond (Rutgers University Press, 1990).
- Raymond Arsenault, The Sound of Freedom: Marian Anderson, The Lincoln Memorial, and the Concert That Awakened America (Bloomsbury Press, 2010).
- Russell Freedman, The Voice That Challenged a Nation: Marian Anderson and the Struggle for Equal Rights (Clarion Books, 2004).
Documentary and Educational Films
Music: Composers, artists, and major works
With their gentle and life-affirming tone, Haydn’s piano trios capture this rudimentary aspect of equality. (Here are links to the complete Haydn piano trios performed by the Beaux Arts Trio, then again in another recording. Individual trios are linked below at the Hob. number. Here are “complete” sets performed by the Haydn Trio Eisenstadt and the Van Swieten Trio [on period instruments].)
- No. 3 in G major, Hob. XIV:6
- No. 14 in C major, Hob. XIV:C1
- No. 5 in C minor, Hob. XIV:1
- Trio in G minor, XV:1
- No. 17 in F major, Hob. XV:2
- No. 18 in G major, Hob. XV:5
- No. 19 in F major, Hob. XV:6
- No. 20 in D major, Hob. XV:7
- No. 21 in B flat major, Hob. XV:8
- No. 22 in A major, Hob. XV:9
- No. 23 in E flat major, Hob. XV:10
- No. 24 in E flat major, Hob. XV:11
- No. 25 in E minor, Hob. XV:12
- No. 26 in C minor, Hob. XV:13
- No. 27 in A flat major, Hob. XV:14
- No. 29 in G major, Hob. XV:15
- No. 28 in D major, Hob. XV:16 (Gilels, Kogan and Rostropovich)
- No. 30 in F major, Hob. XV:17
- No. 32 in A major, Hob. XV:18
- No. 33 in G minor, Hob. XV:19
- No. 34 in B flat major, Hob. XV:20
- No. 35 in C major, Hob. XV:21
- No. 36 in E flat major, Hob. XV:22
- No. 37 in D minor, Hob. XV:23
- No. 38 in D major, Hob. XV:24
- No. 39 in C major, Hob. XV:25 (“Gypsy”)
- No. 40 in F sharp minor, Hob. XV:26
- No. 43 in C major, Hob. XV:27 (Oistrakh, Knushevitsky and Oborin)
- No. 44 in E major, Hob. XV:28
- No. 45 in E flat major, Hob. XV:29
- No. 42 in E flat major, Hob. XV:30
- No. 41 in E flat minor, Hob. XV:31
- No. 31 in G major, Hob. XV:32
- No. 8 in in D major, Hob. XV:33 (lost)
- No. 11 in E major, Hob. XV:34
- No. 10 in A major, Hob. XV:35
- No. 12 in E flat major, Hob. XV:36
- No. 1 in F major, Hob. XV:37
- No. 13 in B flat major, Hob. XV:38
- No. 4: Five arrangements for piano trio in F major, Hob XV:39
- No. 6 in F major, Hob. XV:40
- No. 7 in G major, Hob. XV:41
- No. 2 in C major, Hob. XV:C1
- No. 9 in D major, Hob. XV:D1
- No. 14 in F minor, Hob. XV:F1
- No. 15 in D major, Hob. XV:deest