The task of pleading a case is not reserved for lawyers, who are not the only ones skilled in that art. Each of us is an attorney-in-fact: the parent advocating for a child, a student defending a thesis, a worker requesting a raise or better working conditions. By standing up for our children, we teach them to stand up for themselves.
Clarence Darrow, the iconic trial attorney of the early 20th century in the United States.
- John A. Farrell, Clarence Darrow: Attorney for the Damned (Doubleday, 2011).
- Andrew E. Kersten, Clarence Darrow: American Iconoclast (Hill and Wang, 2011).
- Clarence Darrow, The Story of My Life (1932).
- Clarence Darrow (Edward J. Larson, ed.), The Essential Words and Writings of Clarence Darrow (Modern Library, 2007).
- Clarence Darrow, Crime: Its Cause and Treatment (Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1922).
- Clarence Darrow, Clarence Darrow on Religion (1910).
- Donald McRae, The Great Trials of Clarence Darrow: The Landmark Cases of Leopold and Loeb, John T. Scopes and Ossian Sweet (Harper Perennial 2010).
Margaret Thatcher, prime minister of the United Kingdom in the late 20th century, was an advocate for her causes:
- Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher, The Authorized Biography, Volume One: From Grantham to the Falklands (Knopf, 2013): “The excellent first volume of Charles Moore’s official life of Britain’s only woman prime minister made the question of Thatcher’s gender the animating force behind the story: how this grocer’s daughter from an unfashionable part of England overcame the prejudice of the times and her party to become Conservative leader, and then battled the skepticism and constant slights that implied that as a woman, not least a lower-middle-class one, she wasn’t up to the job of running the country.”
- Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher, The Authorized Biography, Volume Two: Everything She Wants (Allen Lane, 2015): “This new volume opens with Thatcher reaping the political rewards of her success, winning a thumping 144-seat parliamentary majority at the 1983 general election, and covers the four-year period up to another comprehensive victory in 1987 when Thatcher became the first British prime minister since Lord Liverpool in the 1820s to win three successive elections.”
- Charles Moore, Margaret Thatcher, The Authorized Biography, Volume Three: Herself Alone (Knopf, 2019): “Pairing this puritanical approach to politics with a devotion to the adversarial method that her training as a barrister had inculcated . . . Thatcher, who relished the cockpit of the House of Commons as much as she was repelled by the consensual processes that cabinet government ultimately demanded, saw politics as an exercise in advocacy, in which the truth would emerge from the clash of ideas and policies. Her duty was to push for the truth as she saw it; let others do the same.”
- Roger Steffens, So Much Things to Say: The Oral History of Bob Marley (W.W. Norton & Company, 2017): “As the New York Times pop music critic Jon Pareles once wrote: ‘Bob Marley became the voice of third-world pain and resistance, the sufferer in the concrete jungle who would not be d’enied forever. Outsiders everywhere heard Marley as their own champion.’”
- Nicholas Buccola, The Fire Is Upon Us: James Baldwin, William F. Buckley, and the Debate Over Race in America (Princeton University Press, 2019): “The proposition before the house was: ‘The American dream is at the expense of the American Negro.’ For Baldwin, who would roll his eyes more than once during the debate, the question indicated glaring ignorance. The American dream was a nightmare from which he was trying to wake. For Buckley, the American dream was a giant bootstrap that American blacks refused to employ.”
Documentary and Educational Films
Film and Stage
- (Open City): a film made during Nazi occupation in Italy about “the lives of a group of people living in Rome during the Nazi occupation, after the Germans had declared it an ‘open city’”: the most powerful message here may be in the making of the film
- Salvatore Giuliano: the film advocates a crackdown on organized crime with its portrayal of an Italian crime syndicate
Music: Composers, artists, and major works
Many conductors have served as composers’ advocates. Examples include John Barbirolli and Adrian Boult for the composer Edward Elgar; Adrian Boult for composer Ralph Vaughan Williams; Herbert von Karajan for composer Richard Strauss; and Eugen Jochum for composer Anton Bruckner. Such advocates sometimes are called champions of the composer. Similarly, in life, an advocate is a champion for a person, organization or cause.
- John Barbirolli conducting Elgar, Symphony No. 1 in A-flat major, Op. 55; Symphony No. 2 in E-flat Major, Op. 63; Elgar’s Enigma Variations and Pomp and Circumstance Marches; and “The Dream of Gerontius”
- Adrian Boult conducting Elgar, Symphony No. 1 in A-flat major, Op. 55; Symphony No. 2 in E-flat Major, Op. 63; Enigma Variations, Op. 36; “The Dream of Gerontius”; and Nursery Suite
- Adrian Boult conducting Vaughan Williams, Symphony No. 1, “A Sea Symphony”; Symphony No. 2, “London” (1. Lento - Allegro risoluto; 2. Lento; 3. Scherzo; 4. Andante con moto - Epilogue); Symphony No. 3, “A Partoral Symphony”; Symphony No. 4; Symphony No. 5; Symphony No. 6; Symphony No. 7, “Sinfonia Antarctica”; Symphony No. 8; and Symphony No. 9
- Herbert von Karajan conducting Richard Strauss, Also sprach Zarathustra; Eine Alpensinfonie; Don Juan; Tod und Verklärung; Metamorphosen
- Eugen Jochum conducting Bruckner, Symphony No. 1; Symphony No. 4 in E-flat major, “Romantic”; Symphony No. 5; Symphony No. 7; Symphony No. 8 in C minor; and Symphony No. 9 in D minor
Similarly, great artists have championed the music of great composers:
- Artur Rubinstein, Chopin’s piano music: Nocturnes; Mazurkas; Polonaises; Piano Concertos 1 and 2
- Walter Gieseking, Debussy’s piano music: Preludes; Études; Images, Book 1; Images, Book 2
- Dvořák, Cello Concerto in B minor, Op. 104, B191 (1895) (performances by Rostropovich, du Pré, and du Pré)
- Arensky, Piano Concerto in F Minor, Op. 2, “Russian Concert” (1881) (performances by Cherkasov, Kaplan and Kaplan)
- Borodin, Paraphrases (1878-1879): here, Borodin advocates for each composer’s style and perspective.